Municipal solid waste is subjected to thermal cracking through a process of incineration, gasification or pyrolysis. Gasification or indirect combustion is the chemical conversion, at high temperatures, of solid waste material containing carbon atoms into fuel or synthetic gas through gas forming reactions. The gas may consist of carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane also known as synthetic gas (Syngas). This syngas can be used to manufacture chemicals and can be used as fuel in place of natural gas for power generation.
The syngas coming out of the gasifier is combusted in a thermal oxidizer to combust volatile organic compounds. The flue gas then enters a boiler where steam is generated. The steam can be used for electrical power generation or for drying, air conditioning and cooling purposes. This simultaneous production of cooling, heating and power in one process is known as “Tri-generation.” The tri-generation energy process produces four different forms of energy from the primary energy source, namely, hot water, steam, cooling (chilled water) and power generation (electrical energy). The system could be a centralized system of large capacity treating the waste generated from cities and in turn using the energy to produce electricity.
1. For Industry
- Using heat generated for Air conditioning.
- Electricity generation.
- Hot water requirement.
- Petroleum refineries, rubber and plastic industries, Sugar industry.
2. Solid waste management sites where substantial amount of combustible waste is generated.
3. Biomedical waste generated from Hospitals.